With the movement of goods from one continent to another, or even within the same continent, goods face many hazards. There is the risk of theft, damage and possibly the goods not even arriving at all.

The exporter must understand all aspects of international logistics, in particular the contract of carriage. This contract is drawn up between a shipper and a carrier (transport operator). Exporters and importers must understand their legal rights to claim against carriers. The “shipper”, would be the party that pays the main carrier of freight and this could be either the exporter or the importer, dependant upon the Incoterm (see section on Incoterms 2000, ICC publication) under which that particular transaction was effected.