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Learning to export... The export process in 21 easy steps

STEP 1: CONSIDERING EXPORTING

Considering exporting

The various benefits of exporting

The various drawbacks to exporting

     The difference between domestic and export marketing
     The various environments you may encounter
          The socio-cultural environment
               Language
               Material culture
                Aesthetics
               Social Organisation
               Religious beliefs, attitudes, values, space and time
          The legal environment
          The economic environment
               Gross Domesic Product (GDP)
               Disposable Income
               Demographic factors
               Competitive and complementary products
               Industrialised vs. developing countries
               Degree of government intervention
               Trading blocs
               International trade agreements
          The political environment
          The technological environment
               The physical environment
          The various barriers you may face

STEP 2: CURRENT BUSINESS VIABILITY

Current business viability

Your business viability checklist

Assistance to help you improve your current business

STEP 3: EXPORT READINESS

Export readiness

Your export readiness checklist

     Part A: Business Readiness

     Part B: Product & production

     Part C: Market & marketing

     Part D: Export development

STEP 4: BROAD MISSION STATEMENT AND INITIAL BUDGET

Broad mission statement and initial budget

STEP 5: CONFIRMING MANAGEMENT’S COMMITMENT TO EXPORTS

Confirming management’s commitment to exports

STEP 6: UNDERTAKING AN INITIAL EXPORT SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE FIRM

Undertaking an initial export SWOT analysis of the firm

Export SWOT checklist

STEP 7: SELECTING AND RESEARCHING POTENTIAL COUNTRIES/MARKETS ABROAD

Selecting and researching potential countries/markets abroad

Prepare a research brief

     Export research budget
     Evaluating the cost/benefit of your export research

Implementing the research brief

     Compile a shortlist of countries
     Evaluate the shortlisted countries in more detail
        Focusing on the customer - Undertaking market research in your foreign target market
        Circumstances favouring in-house research
        Circumstances favouring agency research
        Commissioning an external market research agency
        Checklist for selecting a marketing research agency
        Desk research
               Sources of information for desk research
          In-market research
               Techniques for formal in-market research
                    Personal interviews
                    Telephone interviews
                    Postal surveys
                    Store visits
                    Test marketing
                    Motivational research
                    Problems with in-market research
     Preparing a research report
          The structure of the export research report
          Compiling the market research report

STEP 8: PREPARING AND IMPLEMENTING YOUR EXPORT PLAN

Preparing your export plan

Synopsis of research already done

Revisiting the export SWOT analysis of the firm

Setting the export objectives of the firm

Preparing an export marketing strategy for your firm

     The export product

          Product modification - adaptation vs standardisation

               Factors favouring product standardisation

               Factors favouring product adaptation

               Mandatory product modifications

               Evaluating the need for product modification

          New product development

          Eliminating obsolete products

          Product quality and design

          Improving the production process

          Packaging for exports

          Labelling for exports

          Product brands and trademarks

          Product servicing

     The export price

          Step 1: Undertaking a price analysis of your target market

          Step 2: Costing for exports

               Costing guidelines

               Costing sheet framework

          Step 3: Approaches to pricing

          Step 4: Export pricing strategies at you disposal

          Step 5: The export price - your key to success

          Step 6: From an export price to a final selling price

               Additional costs to consider

          Step 7: Reviewing the pricing process

               Cost reduction strategies

               Marginal cost pricing

     Export promotion

          Step 1: Deciding on a suitable mix of promotional elements

               Advertising

               Sales promotion

                    Trade Fairs

                         Understand the different types of trade fairs

                         Formulate your objectives for participating in a trade fair

                         Select a trade fair that will meet your objectives

                         Prepare a budget for your trade fair

                         Book the stand

                         Organise to participate in the trade fair

                         Actually participate in the trade fair

                         Ensure follow-up on your trade fair participation afterwards

               Direct marketing

               Internet marketing

               Publicity

               Personal selling

          Step 2: Determining the extent of standardisation of your export promotion effort

          Step 3:
             Deciding on the core message(s) you will use to promote your product and company

     Export distribution

          Market entry channels

               Indirect exporting

                    Different forms of representation in international trade

                    Licensing and franchising

                    Contracting

                    Manufacturing abroad

          In-market distribution decisions

          The influence of payment and Incoterms on distribution

          Physical distribution

          The Whole Channel concept

Preparing an export budget for your firm

Outlining an implementation schedule for your export activities

Preparing and presenting your export plan

Obtaining approval for your export plan

STEP 9: OBTAINING FINANCING/RESOURCES FOR YOUR EXPORTS

Obtaining financing/resources for your exports

Bank financing

Payment methods as a means of financing

     Documentary collection

     Documentary credits

DTI export incentives

     Definitions and terminology

     Individual participation incentive schemes

     Individual Exhibitions (IE)

          General qualification criteria

          Limitation of assistance provided

          Scheme-specific financial criteria

          Steps involved in applying for assistance

          Application documentation and other requirements

          Claim documentation and other requirements

     Individual Inward-bound Mission (IIBM)

          General qualification criteria

          Limitation of assistance provided

          Scheme-specific qualifying criteria

          Steps involved in applying for assistance

          Application documents and other requirements

          Claim documents and other requirements

     In-store promotions (IP)

          General qualification criteria

          Limitation of assistance provided

          Scheme-specific qualifying criteria

          Steps involved in applying for assistance

          Application documents and other requirements

          Claim documents and other requirements

     Primary Market Research (PMR)

          General qualification criteria

          Limitation of assistance provided

          Scheme-specific qualifying criteria

          Steps involved in applying for assistance

          Application documents and other requirements

          Claim documents and other requirements

     Group participation incentive schemes

     Group inward buying trade missions

          Types of group mission

               Outward selling missions

               Inward buying missions

          Who qualifies for group missions?

               The disclosure of related parties

          Types of assistance and financial contributions

          Steps involved in applying for assistance

          Claims procedures

          Supplementary information

          EMIA contact details

          Corresponding with EMIA

          Preferred service providers

     National Pavilions (NP)

          Types of National Pavilions

          Who qualifies for National Pavilions

               The disclosure of related parties

          Types of assistance and financial contributions

          Steps involved in applying for assistance

          Claims procedures

          Exporter advice and responsibilities when attending National Pavilions

          Special conditions

          Supplementary information

          Contact details for National Pavilions

          Corresponding with EMIA

          Preferred service providers (PSPs)

Payment terms and export financing

Pricing as a means of financing

Export receivables

Foreign currency loans

Alternative sources of financing

STEP 10: MANAGING YOUR EXPORT RISK

Managing your export risk

STEP 11: PROMOTING THE FIRM AND ITS PRODUCTS ABROAD

Promoting the firm and its products abroad

STEP 12: NEGOTIATING AND QUOTING IN EXPORTS

Negotiating and quoting in exports

     The art of negotiating in export markets

     Quoting for exports

     Doing business abroad

          North America

          Latin America

          Europe

          Africa

          Middle East

          Far East

STEP 13: REVISING YOUR EXPORT COSTING AND PRICE

Revising your export costing and price

     Revisit the costing exercise

          Costing sheet framework

     Revisit your pricing strategy

     Marginal costing

     Consider the various cost reduction strategies available to you

     Decide on a new export price

STEP 14: OBTAINING THE EXPORT ORDER

Obtaining the export order

The start of the export sequence

STEP 15: PRODUCING THE GOODS

Producing the goods

STEP 16: EXPORT LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORTATION TYPES

Handling the export logistics

Sea freight

     Sea freight calculations

     Sea freight payment terms

Air freight

     Air freight calculations

Rail freight

Road freight

River freight

Containerisation

STEP 17:  EXPORT DOCUMENTATION

Export documentation

Documents involving the importer

     The quotation

     The proforma invoice

     The export contract

     The commercial invoice

     The packing list

     Letter of credit

     Certificates of origin/health/fumigation/pre-shipment inspection

     Documents required for transport

          Bill of lading (BOL or B/L)

          Air waybill

          Freight transit order

          Road consignment note

          Export cargo shipping instruction

Documents required to export goods from South Africa

     Exporter registration form

     Letter of credit

     Commercial invoice

     Customs declaration form

     Exchange control

     Export permit

Documents required for transportation

     Bill of lading (BOL or B/L)

     Air waybill

     Freight transit order

     Road consignment note

     Export cargo shipping instruction

Documents required for payment

     Commercial invoice

     Letter of credit

     ;Transport documents

Marine insurance

     Utmost good faith

     Insurance premium

     Duration of cover

     Insurable interest and value

     War risks

     Marine cover

     General average

STEP 18 PROVIDING FOLLOW-UP SUPPORT

Providing follow-up support

STEP 19: GETTING PAID

Getting paid

Payment methods

     Payments in advance

     Open account

     Documentary collections

     Documentary credits

          Types of letters of credit

          Documentary credits

Payment terms

     Remitting cash payment

     Credit terms

     Incoterms

STEP 20: REVIEWING AND IMPROVING THE EXPORT PROCESS

Reviewing and improving the export process

STEP 21: EXPORT MANAGEMENT

Export management

 
Top of page


© Cornelius Bothma

Learning to export...
The export process in 21 easy steps
Step 1: Considering exporting
Step 2:Current business viability
Step 3:Export readiness
Step 4:Broad mission statement and initial budget
Step 5:Confirming management's commitment to exports
Step 6: Undertaking an initial SWOT analysis of the firm
Step 7:Selecting and researching potential countries abroad
Step 8: Preparing and implementing your export plan
Step 9: Obtaining financing for your exports
Step 10: Managing your export risk
Step 11: Promoting the firm and its products abroad
Step 12: Negotiating and quoting in exports
Step 13: Revising your export costings and price
Step 14: Obtaining the export order
Step 15: Producing the goods
Step 16: Handling the export logistics
Step 17: Export documentation
Step 18: Providing follow-up support
Step 19: Getting paid
Step 20: Reviewing and improving the export process
Step 21: Export Management
Export Reference
HS Codes
SIC Codes
TARIC Codes
Incoterms
Country Codes
Airline Codes
Airport Codes
Port Codes
Telephone Codes
Industry specific export control
Electricity Voltages
Transportation Types
Container Types
Hazardous Cargo Symbols
International Trade Agreements
Country Info
Export Documentation
E-marketplaces
Trading cycle
Export Articles
Export Glossary
Export Acronyms
Export Opportunities
Export portals
E-marketplaces
Export calendar
Inward Bound Missions
Outward Bound Missions
Trade Fairs SA
International Trade Fairs
Country Info
Country Help
SA Missions Abroad
Missions in SA
SA Representatives
Bilateral Chambers
Export Network
SA Economic Representatives
SA Missions Abroad
Missions in SA
Export Councils
Export Consultants
Export Trainers
Export Agents
Customs Clearing Agents
Trading Companies
Export Financiers
Chambers
Bilateral Chambers
Government Departments
Trade Associations
Freight Forwarders
Airline Companies
Shipping Lines
Road Haulers
Courier companies
Spoornet
Trade/Maritime Lawyers
World Trade Point Federation
South African Translators
Libraries
Universities with international Expertise
International Trade Statistics
Import and Export Statistics
Main Trading Partners
Main Export Products
Economic Statistics
SA Statistics
SA Reserve Bank
Trademap
Productmap
Data Mapper®
UNCTAD Statistics


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