IThe following are the factors that favour
- Maximisation of profits is usually the primary motivation
for going to the expense of modifying a product and is
in direct contrast to the policy of cost reduction through
- Differing consumer tastes affect food, fashion, and
household products, in particular. However, they also
have a strong influence on the design and manufacture
of items such as motor cars. For example, the French normally
show a strong preference for 4-door models whereas the
Germans prefer 2-door models.
- Inadequate consumer purchasing power may necessitate
a low price and a corresponding reduction in the quality
(e.g. finish or grade) of a product. Packaging, in particular,
would be affected in such a case.
- Variations in national conditions, such as different
approaches to wearing and washing clothes may necessitate
different kinds of washing machines, or soaps and detergents.
In some European countries, boiling water is used for
washing and, consequently, washing machines must have
special built-in heaters. In developing countries, on
the other hand, washing is done in streams or rivers and
bar soap is much preferred to packaged soap powders which
are ineffective if the water used for washing is not confined
to a washing machine or other container
- Where the level of technical ability is generally low,
a product may have to be simplified or provided with good
back-up. Poor maintenance standards in developing countries
may give rise to the need for improvements to product
reliability or the simplification of the product.
- Tariff levels may dictate local manufacture or assembly,
or local purchase of components, thus preventing standardisation.
- Government taxation policy may necessitate changes to
the product in order to reduce the amount of tax payable,
e.g. car tax related to engine size.
- Due to varying road and traffic conditions, cars, trucks
and tyres may need to be modified depending on whether
they are destined for industrialised or developing countries.
- Sometimes climatic conditions dictate that modifications
be made to products that are sensitive to temperature
or humidity, e.g. the composition of car tyres will vary
from one market to another depending on the extremes of
climate. Similarly, the inclusion of heaters or air conditioners
in certain car models will depend on the climatic conditions
of the markets concerned.
- When a product is perceived as new in a particular market,
it may have to be adapted in order that consumer resistance
and slow market growth may be overcome.
- Local labour costs may influence the extent of automation
in the production process.